Results show that self-report QoL scores ranged from Both proxies consistently reported lower QoL scores and agreement between self and proxy ratings was predominantly poor. Unmet needs and psychotropic medication were identified as the most important predictors of reduced self-rated QoL, whereas an increase of psychiatric symptoms, problem behaviours, and psychotropic medication best predicted the reduced QoL proxy ratings.
To conclude, proxies still have to strive for a more holistic approach in surrogate QoL assessments and according to adults with ID, service providers should focus on a reduction of unmet needs and psychotropic medication to further improve QoL. All rights reserved. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities ]. Apr Tijdschr Psychiatr. Client and key worker ratings of need in first-episode psychosis early intervention programmes. Jennifer M. Hensel David J. AimThe aim of this study was to fill a gap in the literature by examining agreement on need as rated by clients and their key workers from first-episode psychosis early intervention programmes.
Compared with adult populations and more chronic courses of illness, these clients may have unique needs given the onset of their illness in adolescence or early adulthood. Methods Needs agreement between clients and key workers was assessed using the Camberwell Assessment of Need in a sample of client—key worker pairs recruited from six early intervention programmes in Ontario, Canada. Ratings were assessed with percentage agreement and prevalence-adjusted Cohen's kappa. ResultsAt the aggregate level, both clients and key workers rated a mean of 2. Compared with other diagnoses, key workers rated significantly more unmet need in clients with primary psychotic disorders.
Conclusions While congruence is present in concrete domains, there is substantial variability in how clients and their key workers perceive need in more personal areas. The initial focus of care may necessarily be on needs such as shelter, food and treatment; however, subsequent care should incorporate a shared assessment of need to support strong relationships with providers and ongoing engagement in treatment. Evaluation of Alternatives to Cohen's Kappa. In this study, we aimed to evaluate interrater agreement statistics IRAS for use in research on low base rate clinical diagnoses or observed behaviors.
Establishing and reporting sufficient interrater agreement is essential in such studies. The simulations investigated the robustness of these IRAS to conditions that are common in clinical research, with varying levels of behavior or diagnosis base rate, rater bias, observed interrater agreement, and sample size.
When the base rate was 0. G was the least sensitive of the IRAS to base rates. The results encourage the use of the G statistic for its consistent performance across the simulation conditions. We recommend separately reporting the rates of agreement on the presence and absence of a behavior or diagnosis alongside G as an index of chance corrected overall agreement. A cross-sectional epidemiological multisite study assessing prevalence of psychiatric symptomatology, needs for care and quality of healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability in Germany: A study protocol.
May Andrea Koch Anke Vogel. The study 'Mental healthcare provision for adults with intellectual disability and a mental disorder' MEMENTA is a cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out in three different regions of Germany. Its main aim is to assess the prevalence of mental disorders in adults with intellectual disability ID as well as quality of mental healthcare for this population. Methods and analysis: The target population are persons aged between 18 and 65 years with a mild or moderate ID. The study population will be recruited through service providers.
A representative sample is realised by two-stage sampling. First, institutions providing services for people with ID sheltered workshops are selected in a stratified cluster sampling, with strata being 1 types of service-providing non-governmental organisations and 2 sizes of their sheltered workshops. Then persons working in selected sheltered workshops are selected by simple random sampling. An estimated number of adults with ID will be included.
Information will be obtained from the group leaders in the sheltered workshops, informal carers or staff members in sheltered housing institutions and the person with ID. Besides the main outcome parameter of psychiatric symptomatology and problem behaviour, other outcome parameters such as needs for care, quality of life, caregiver burden, health services utilisation and costs for care are assessed using well-established standardised instruments.
If a comorbid mental disorder is diagnosed, quality of mental healthcare will be assessed with open questions to all interview partners and, in addition, problem-focused interviews with a small subgroup. Analyses will be carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Ethics and dissemination: Approval of all three local ethics committees was obtained.
Research findings will add much needed empirical information in order to improve services provided to this vulnerable group of patients. Trial registration number: Trends in the use of psychotropic drugs in people with intellectual disability in Taiwan: A nationwide outpatient service study, Dec This study aims to examine trends in outpatient psychotropic drug use among people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan.
The NHI outpatient medication records between January 1, and December 31, for people with intellectual disabilities were analyzed to observe the percent change, prevalence and prescription trends in psychotropic drugs. The overall prevalence of psychotropic medication increased from Results from stepwise logistic analysis demonstrated that females, the elderly, and individuals suffering from catastrophic disease were more prone to receive psychotropic drugs and that those with mild intellectual disability were less likely to receive psychotropic drugs.
Taiwan's NHI program and off-label use of psychotropic drugs might have attributed to this trend. Ethical issues of psychotropic medication for people with intellectual disabilities. There is over-use of psychotropic medication with people with intellectual disabilities. Many of these individuals do not have the capacity to understand and retain the relevant information about the use and effectiveness of medication.
Professionals and health care practitioners need to be fully aware of the ethical and legal issues in the use and administration of psychotropic medication. Background The five-country European Psychiatric Services: Cronbach's alpha, test-retest reliability and interrater reliability were compared between the five sites. Reliability coefficients and standard errors of measurement for summary scores were estimated. Results Sites varied in levels and spread of needs. Alphas were 0. Test-retest reliability estimates, pooled over sites, were 0.
Pooled estimates for interrater reliability were higher. There were statistically significant differences in interrater reliability between sites. Declaration of interest No conflict of interest. Funding detailed in Acknowledgements. Aberrant behavior checklist-community. Slosson Educational Publications, East Aurora. Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports 10th ed. Ruth Luckasson Sharon Borthwick-Duffy.
In this manual 10th edition , the American Association on Mental Retardation AAMR , through its Ad Hoc Committee on Terminology and Classification, continues its contribution of information on the definition and classification of the state of functioning currently known as mental retardation. With this work, the AAMR attempts to state, describe, organize, and extend the thinking in the field of mental retardation that has occurred over the past 10 years since the publication of the AAMR's manual. The present manual contains and describes the logical continuation in conceptualizing mental retardation as functional and contextual.
Jul J Autism Dev Disord. The use of psychotropics by categories and the reason for their prescription was investigated in a large scale study of 4, adults with ID, including those with autism spectrum disorder, in New York State. Results indicated that the major psychiatric disorders, except anxiety disorder and autism, influenced the use of psychotropics and the number of medication used.
These findings imply that although practitioners still rely too heavily on the use of antipsychotics in this population, there is a welcome shift in the prescription patterns relative to other studies. The practitioners appeared to use psychotropics primarily to treat diagnosed psychiatric disorders and not just to control aggressive behavior which suggests that evidence-based practice of psychiatry is playing an increasing role in the ID population. Needs-led Assessment: The Challenges and the Reality. Dec Health Soc Care Community. Needs-led assessment and case management were to form the cornerstone of high quality care.
Practitioners were challenged to alter their attitudes and practice to accommodate the needs-led approach. The pivotal role given to assessment meant the success, or otherwise, of the reforms lay in part on the ability of practitioners to make this transition. However, to make needs-led assessment a reality, practitioners would have both to overcome conceptual barriers — need being an unclear concept, with no clear framework existing to assess need — and also to deal successfully with the conflicting requirement to ration services.
In order to investigate whether the shift to needs-led practice had been possible, the opinions of social and healthcare practitioners providing services for older people in North Wales were sought through semi-structured interviews in — and — Supports and constraints to practice were also explored. Practitioners indicated that whilst they welcomed the needs-led philosophy, putting it into practice was difficult, if not impossible. Ever tightening budgets and service eligibility criteria over the period of the study indicate that a shift of focus from assessment of need to rationing has taken place.
Background Older people with intellectual disabilities ID are a growing population but their age-related needs are rarely considered and community services are still geared towards the younger age group. We aimed to examine the mental health and social care needs of this new service user group. Carers reported health problems and disability. One-third of the older people screened positive for dementia range: Conclusion Older people with ID without DS have considerable prevalence of health problems and psychiatric disorders, including symptoms of functional decline and dementia. Such symptoms are often not recognised and further research into their needs is a priority.
Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Behandlung aggressiven Verhaltens bei Menschen mit geistiger Behinderung mit Risperidon. Buchmann S Bohne. Despite definite indication for psychopharmacologic intervention, severe and persistent symptoms of aggressive and self-injurious behaviour still remain a therapeutic challenge. As recent research has demonstrated, not only the dopaminergic and serotonergic but also the endogenous opiate system plays a role in the pathogenesis of self-injurious behaviour.
Nevertheless, the efficacy of classical neuroleptics as well as opiate antagonists is questioned. In open and controlled studies, the administration of the atypical neuroleptic risperidone a serotonin 2A-dopamine D2 antagonist was associated with a long-term effect in reducing self-injuries. In our clinical trial, 20 mentally retarded adults presenting with severe self-injurious and aggressive behaviour were administered risperidone over a follow-up period of 35 months. Clinical efficacy was measured with the Disability Assessment Schedule DAS , conducted in a home for people with mental retardation.
In 17 patients, a significant reduction in self-injurious behaviour is shown. Besides, there was a significant overall clinical improvement in behaviour. Cross-Sectional Survey of a Service Sample. Little research has been conducted on the mental health needs of adolescents with intellectual disability, despite the severity and rates of such needs being high throughout childhood and in adulthood. We have investigated the prevalence and predictors of mental health needs and service use in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.
Individual assessments were carried out. The main outcome was the presence of mental health needs measured by the Developmental Behaviour Checklist. Caseness was associated with low adaptive functioning, diagnosis of autism and family history of mental illness. High scores on parent reports of participant mental ill-health showed negative correlations with adaptive functioning scores. Most individuals were in receipt of social and health care. Half of the participants had sought help for mental health needs. Almost half of those receiving medication were on psychiatric medication.
Adolescents with intellectual disabilities may have considerable mental health problems which are functionally impairing yet frequently unidentified and hence untreated. Identification of those at risk and undertaking of a comprehensive needs assessment are essential to maximize potential and quality of life and to reduce further deficits and social exclusion. Multiple perspectives on mental health outcome: Needs for care and service satisfaction assessed by staff, patients and family members.
Aug Soc Psychiatr Psychiatr Epidemiol. Community-based mental health care requires the involvement of staff, patients, and their family members when both planning intervention programmes and evaluating mental health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare the perceptions of these three groups on two important subjective mental health outcome measures--needs for care and service satisfaction--to identify potential areas of discrepancy. The sample consisted of patients with a DSM diagnosis of psychosis and attending either outpatient or day centres operating in a community-based care system.
Staff, patients and family members were assessed by using the CAN and the VSSS to evaluate, respectively, needs for care and service satisfaction. Kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement in the three groups. Patients identified significantly fewer basic e. Only fair levels of agreement were found in the three groups average kappa was 0. These findings provide further support for the idea that mental health services should routinely involve patients and their relatives when planning and evaluating psychiatric intervention and that this policy is a premise for developing a partnership care model.
Aug The aim of the present study was to standardize and generate psychometric evidence of the German language versions of two well-established English language mental health instruments: New methods in this field were introduced: The checklists were both administered to a representative sample of individuals with intellectual disability ID and, two years later in a second data collection, to participants of the original sample. Principal component analysis and parallel analysis were performed.
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Reliability measures, long-term stability, subscale intercorrelations, as well as standardized norms were generated. Prevalence of mental health problems was examined. Psychometric properties were mostly excellent, with long-term stability showing moderate to strong effects. The original factor structure of the ABC-C was replicated.
Considering the good results on the measured psychometric properties, the two checklists are recommended for the early detection of mental health problems in persons with ID. Use of antipsychotic drugs in individuals with intellectual disability ID in the Netherlands: Prevalence and reasons for prescription. Jul J Intellect Disabil Res. We investigated antipsychotic drug prescription practice of Dutch ID physicians, studying prevalence of antipsychotic drug use, reasons for prescription and the relationship between these reasons and patient characteristics.
Prevalence of antipsychotic drug use was In Behavioural problems as reason for prescription was associated with profound and severe ID, living in a central location and male sex. Psychotic disorder specified according to DSM-IV as indication for prescription was negatively associated with profound and severe ID and with presence of an additional mental disorder. Absence of a noted reason for prescription was associated with female sex and with the presence of an additional mental disorder.
Current prevalence and reason for prescription of antipsychotic drugs are similar with outcomes of previous studies. Our results show the continuing lack of evidence-based psychopharmacological treatment in mental health care for persons with IDs. Self-reported needs among older persons with intellectual disabilities in an Irish community-based service. Nov Darragh McCausland.
Current research indicates that older persons with intellectual disabilities ID are a growing population with very specific needs. There are few existing studies that identify and characterise these needs. This study aimed to assess the health and social care needs of a group of older persons with ID in a community-based service in Ireland. The mean age of the sample was The most common 'unmet needs' reported were basic education and money budgeting the ability to independently manage one's own finances.
The top-rated 'met needs' were food and daytime activities. Participants with severe or profound ID reported significantly more 'unmet needs' than those with mild or moderate ID. The current study identified education and financial skills as unmet needs for older persons with ID, implying that continuing lifelong learning programmes might be a valuable and appropriate addition to service provision and retirement options. Further research should be carried out to inform a comprehensive evidence base of the health and social care needs of this group.
Client socio-demographic and service receipt inventory — European version. Martin Knapp D. International guide to prescribing psychotropic medication for the management of problem behaviours in adults with intellectual disabilities. Psychotropic medications are used regularly to manage problem behaviours among people with intellectual disabilities. This causes concern because often these medications are used out of their licensed indications in this context.
The WPA Section on Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability has recently developed an evidence and consensus-based international guide for practitioners for the use of psychotropic medications for problem behaviours among adults with intellectual disabilities. This guide advises on assessment of behaviours, producing a formulation, initiation of treatment, assessment of out-come and adverse effects, follow-up arrangements, and possibility of discontinuation of treatment.
Sexuality and personal relationships for people with an intellectual disability Part II Staff and family carer perspectives. Sep J Intellect Disabil Res.
Recent ideological shifts in service provision promote appropriate sexual expression for people with an intellectual disability ID , although there is little evidence that such advances in ideology are matched by current service provision. Part II of the current two-part study assessed the attitudes of staff and family carers to the sexuality of people with an ID. In general, staff carers were more inclined than family carers to openly discuss issues of sexuality with service users, and to suggest environmental, rather than service-user characteristics, as impediments to such discussions.
Attitudinal differences emerged with significant differences between staff and family carers and between younger and older carers. When compared with the attitudes of family carers towards the sexuality of people with ID, the attitudes of staff carers more closely match those promoted by ideological developments. However, differences in attitudes between carer groups may lead to inconsistent approaches to the management of sexuality.
As a consequence, we conclude that there is continued need to provide staff and family carers with opportunities for dialogue and an ongoing need for training in the area of sexuality. Sexuality and personal relationships for people with an intellectual disability Part I Service-user perspectives. E Healy. Use of the multilevel growth curve model revealed negative linear development in all three self-concept domains from Grades 5 to 7, but participation in part-time special education had a statistically significant positive effect on the development of the Reading self-concept.
Finally, the two meta-analyses of Bear et al. The issue of motivation in LD has been the focus of research from a range of conceptual frameworks such as self-efficacy, learned helplessness, attribution theory, goal orientation theory and approach to learning theory. Self-efficacy as the beliefs in one's abilities to carry out a desired course of action means that people are likely to engage in activities to the degree that they perceive themselves to be competent at those activities Bandura, Self-efficacy beliefs influence the level of effort and persistence expended on a task.
The empirical evidence linking socioemotional difficulties and LD is strong but the findings are far from conclusive. A number of methodological concerns have been raised regarding the studies on LD Bear et al. Firstly, the heterogeneity of the dyslexic population, the variable identification criteria, and the presence of comorbidity make comparisons across studies difficult and generalization of the findings to the respective population almost impossible.
Polychroni, F. Antoniou, A. Social, emotional and motivational aspects of learning disabilities: Challenges and responses.
Jan Fotini Polychroni. Full-text available. This book is an ambitious project uniting various fields in a multidisciplinary venture drawing on academics and clinicians from medicine, psychology and educational sciences. The interdisciplinary approach has assembled medical, educational and health specialists with scholarly contributions from many different countries and institutes. A plethora of scientific studies have shown that in order for children to maintain good health, both physically and psychologically, families, teachers, physicians and psychologists have to work closely together.
Few scientific books address the wide spectrum of challenges required to resolve such developmental issues: This collection of essays is an attempt to bridge theoretical and research concepts and findings with clinical practise, adopting an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective. He has also taught in undergraduate and postgraduate programmes at other universities and institutions e.
He has served as the coordinator of the Division of Organisational Psychology of the Hellenic Psychological Association for three terms. Research interests: Bruce Kirkcaldy has academic degrees in psychology from the Universities of Dundee and Giessen, as well as postgraduate professional training as a Behavioural Therapist and Clinical Psychologist. He is Director of the International Centre for the Study of Occupational and Mental Health, and runs his own psychotherapy practise specializing in the treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders and psychosomatic ailments.
Individual differences in movement, Normalities and abnormalities in human movement, The art and science of health care: Psychology and human factors for practitioners and Wounded healers: Essays by mental health professionals with research and writing interests directed towards clinical and health issues and organizational and leisure psychology. In contrast, several other studies report that young children with various types of behavioural, developmental or academic difficulties, which may lead to negative feedback from teachers and parents, are quite well aware of their problems and have a clear notion of being different and less apt than their peers Chapman, ; Bear et al.
It has been argued that repeated difficulties in regulating behaviour in learning situations and interactions with others may result in a child to developing negative self-images, which in turn may result in a decrease of motivation, self-fulfilling prophecy as a poor self-regulator, and school failure.
This is supported by several studies claiming that young school children are responsive to negative feedback provided by their environment and that negative self-perceptions in children develop early Chapman, ; Bear et al. In line with these results and as predicted by our hypotheses, discrepancy scores calculated by subtracting a criterion parent report and teacher report from the child's report of self-regulatory skills did not differ between DSR children and CTR children. The development of the scale was based on the assumption that children younger than 10 years old are able to make accurate judgments on self-regulatory functions, as long as items are presented in an age-appropriate form.
Although metacognitive skills in the strict sense seem to emerge at the age of 8 to 10 Veenman et al. On the SelfReg, instead of relating to abstract verbal statements, children compare their own behavior to that of others in concrete daily-life scenarios for a detailed description see methods section. Accuracy of self-perceptions in children and adults with ADHD. Patrizia Rizzo. ADHD is associated with a wide range of social, emotional and cognitive sequelae. Therefore, early assessment and intervention promoting accurate self-perception and meta-cognitive skills are crucial.
Since ADHD is a disorder that persists in up to two thirds of the children into adulthood, it remains unclear whether eventual inaccurate self-perceptions are something that children with ADHD eventually outgrow, or whether they persist into adolescence and adulthood. Existing studies of self-perceptions and self-concept in patients with ADHD have yielded mixed results. Thus, the goal of the present thesis was to investigate whether children and adults with ADHD are able to make accurate judgments of their self-regulatory skills.
To that aim, we first developed and evaluated a new age-appropriate instrument of metacognitive knowledge of selfregulatory skills in young children — the SelfReg —, which demonstrated to be a valid and sensitive instrument. In a next step, the accuracy of self-perceptions of children with ADHD on this new ageappropriate instrument was analyzed. Accuracy of self-perceptions in adults with ADHD was examined by means of existing self-report inventories assessing cognitive and executive deficits in everyday situations, and compared them to those of adults without ADHD.
Consistent with the hypothesis, results indicated that children and adults with ADHD are able to provide accurate self-perceptions when tested with an ecologically valid and appropriate instrument. In accordance with previous findings assessing the self-concept of patients with ADHD, adults with ADHD presented with significantly lower self-concepts compared to controls.
Of note, findings persisted even when controlling for possible confounding depressive symptoms. However, effect sizes in study 2, investigating children with ADHD, indicated a tendency toward a positive bias after all, when children with ADHD were compared to controls. Therefore, an additional exploratory cluster analysis was performed. Results offered evidence for characteristic overestimation as well as for underestimation or accurate estimation of skills in different subgroups of children with ADHD. Poissant, , but in contrast to recent studies claiming that inflated self-perceptions persist in ADHD over the years Hoza et al.
Finally, the study provided further support for the findings of previous studies postulating greater predictive power of behavioural questionnaires over executive function test in the assessment of executive impairments in daily life of patients with ADHD. However, the results should also be considered in the context of some limitations. The findings suggest that over- and underestimation of self-regulatory skills is not universal to ADHD, but may be restricted to a distinct subgroup of ADHD patients whose special characteristics and developmental risks remain to be fully described.
Therefore, further research with larger samples is warranted to determine whether this association exists in different populations with different levels of executive function and self-awareness. In the majority of cases, however, self-reports from patients with ADHD, assessed with ecologically valid and age-appropriate instruments such as the SelfReg, seem to constitute reliable and important source of information for clinical intervention.
Learning environments differ between educational settings and these differences e. The purpose of this study is to investigate if SEN students' achievement motivation differs between special education schools and regular schools and to examine if the classroom social environment i. In the majority of the studies, SEN students in special classes or special education schools reported higher academic self-concepts than SEN students in inclusive settings Bear et al.
Bear et al. However, they also reported considerable heterogeneity in the effect sizes across studies associated with the specific educational setting SEN students experi- enced. The present study investigated how the educational placement in special education schools or regular schools is related to the achievement motivation of students with special educational needs SEN. Furthermore, we examined whether the classroom social environment i. In line with social comparison theory, SEN students in special education schools reported higher academic self-concepts and enjoyment of learning than their peers in regular schools.
Results indicate that social comparisons with classmates may result in placement differences in SEN students' academic self-concept and enjoyment of learning. Interestingly, these kind of effects have also been observed when comparing the academic and vocational track in a sample of Finnish students concerning their education-related goal appraisals Vasalampi et al. This was expected, as academic self-concept is strongly related to achievement level e. Furthermore, as expected, the low-achieving and MLD students showed lower levels of academic self-concept compared to the typicallyachieving students Bear et al.
On the whole sample level, there was an increase in academic self-concept in the vocational track and a decrease in academic self-concept in the academic track compared to Grade 9. Learning difficulties, academic well-being and educational pathways among adolescent students. Nov The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the interplay between learning difficulties in mathematics and reading, academic well-being and educational pathways. Particular emphasis was placed on mathematical learning difficulties, that was the main interest of research in all four studies.
Finally, educational dropout was predicted with learning difficulties and academic well-being in Study IV. Structural equation modelling techniques were used in all the studies and resulted in the following findings. Students with mathematical learning difficulties and low-achieving students did not differ from their peers in academic self-concept development from grade nine to upper secondary education although they experienced lower levels of academic self-concept in grade nine Study III.
However, students with mathematical learning difficulties in general upper secondary education displayed opposite change patterns in school burnout compared to typically achieving students. Both learning difficulties and academic well-being predicted educational dropout Study IV. Moreover, mathematical learning difficulties co-occur frequently with difficulties in reading in this age group. Zunächst sind als Verbindung zwischen der sozialen und der Leistungsentwicklung der Schüler als kritischer Aspekt des integrativen Unterrichts mögliche negative Auswirkungen auf das Selbstkonzept der SchülerInnen mit SPF infolge des Vergleichs mit deutlich leistungsstärkeren KlassenkameradInnen zu diskutieren.
Kurz zusammengefasst kann gesagt werden, dass sich in den vorliegenden empirischen Untersuchungen kaum negative Auswirkungen von integrativer Beschulung auf das Selbstkonzept der SchülerInnen zeigten. Die IntegrationsschülerInnen und die SonderschülerInnen unterschieden sich nicht hinsichtlich ihrer Angaben zur Prüfungsangst und zum Gefühl des leistungsmotivationalen und sozialen Integriertseins. Wohl aber schätzten sich die IntegrationsschülerInnen im Schnitt als emotional deutlich besser in ihre Schule integriert ein als die SonderschülerInnen. Diese ebenso unerwarteten wie erfreulichen Ergebnisse werden vor dem Hintergrund der einschlägigen Fachliteratur diskutiert.
This may be related to the limited research into relationships between dyslexia and self-concept. Yet, inconsistent with previous studies of dyslexia, the two meta-analytic studies found no significant difference in perceived social acceptance between the two groups of students. Tam, H. Self-concept and depression levels of students with dyslexia in Singapore. Conference Paper.
May Tam Eve Huiyi. Learning and Individual Differences. For instance, relatedness-related beliefs may interact with competence-related beliefs in their effects on outcomes. Although a paucity of research has addressed possible interactive effects of the self-system, adolescents' perceptions of social acceptance could be speculated to moderate the effects of scholastic competence on subjective well-being in school.
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School-related social support and subjective well-being in school among adolescents: The role of self-system factors. Dec J Adolesc. This 6-week longitudinal study aimed to examine a moderated mediation model that may explain the link between school-related social support i.
The findings suggested that both social contextual factors e. Limitations and practical applications of the study were discussed. Five student profile groups were found using cluster analysis: In school grades history, surprisingly, the NA group and the RD group performed equally well across all school grades. Students in the MD group performed as poorly as the LD group. In addition, Duvdevany has found that individuals with learning disabilities who take part in integrated activities have higher physical self-concept and satisfaction with whole self-concept than those who participate in segregated activities.
Interestingly, Seleshi has argued that although the academic self-concept of students with learning disabilities has been found to be more negative than that of their peers without learning disabilities, there is no strong evidence suggesting that students with learning disabilities have more negative social or general selfconcepts than students without learning disabilities.
The present study aimed to add to the existing research on the self-concept of adults with learning disabilities by applying qualitative methods to exploring the different domains of the self-concept of eight adults with mild learning disabilities. Most previous studies on the selfconcept of individuals with learning disabilities have reported the global self-concept of the participants as being either negative e.
In contrast, this study explored and reported individually the different domains of self-concept, and as such, the present findings do not fall into the global categories of either positive or negative self-concept. Exploring the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities. Feb Accessible SummaryThis study tried to find out more about what people with mild learning disabilities think of themselves.
Eight adults with mild learning disabilities were interviewed individually.
Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis
Participants said that they were friendly, helpful, supportive, nice looking, artistic, knowledgeable, independent, capable and religious. Some participants also said that they were anxious, impatient, slow, not normal and were not very mobile. This study shows that more can be done to help people with learning disabilities think more positively about themselves.
SummaryThis qualitative study aimed to add to the research on the self-concept of adults with mild learning disabilities and to generate a deeper understanding of their self-perceptions rather than draw generalised quantitative conclusions. Eight adults diagnosed with mild learning disabilities receiving support from a supported living project were interviewed individually using a semi-structured interview. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data collected were qualitatively analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis.
The findings revealed that the participants described themselves with mostly positive and some negative attributes in the different self-concept domains. However, each of these terms addresses a different facet of perception of self: Addressing the issue of self-concept in the paper we refer to its broadest meaning. Do socio-motivational relationships predict achievement motivation in adolescents with high and low school self-concepts? Multi-group structural equation modelling was used to estimate the associations between the variables of socio-motivational support and achievement motivation.
The results showed that students with a high school self-concept report higher levels of socio-motivational support than students with a low school self-concept, whereas a teacher plays a more important role in motivating low self-concept students. Furthermore, the results underline the importance of adjusting the teacher's support to the level of the student's school self-concept as one of the possible prevention and intervention strategies aimed at boosting adolescents' achievement motivation after the transition to secondary school.
Huber und Wilbert ; Koster et al.
Self-Concept of Students with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis | Request PDF
Einstellungen von Lehramtsstudierenden und Pädagogikstudierenden zur schulischen Inklusion — Ergebnisse einer quantitativen Untersuchung. Sep Unterschiede zwischen Studierenden unterschiedlicher Studienrichtungen können lediglich dahingehend gefunden werden, dass Volksschullehramtsstudierende gegenüber der schulischen Inklusion von SchülerInnen mit körperlicher Behinderung negativer eingestellt sind als Studierende anderer Studienrichtungen. Ein weiterer potenzieller Vorteil exklusiver Beschulung lässt sich mit Bezugsgruppeneffekten begründen.
Inklusion versus Exklusion: Daniela Stranghöner Jelena Hollmann. Challenges and Responses. T his book is an ambitious project uniting various fields in a multidisciplinary venture drawing on academics and clinicians from medicine, psychology and educational sciences. Auch zeigt sich, dass Kinder und Jugendliche mit einem sonderp? Umgang mit Heterogenität in Schule und Unterricht. Mar Unfortunately, it has been widely observed that children and adults with reading and mathematical difficulties have lower academic self-esteem than their normally achieving peers Alexander-Passe ; Carroll and Iles Adolescents with a low academic self-concept are more likely than their peers to develop negative coping styles that are often associated with poor motivation and low emotional and psychological well-being Bear, Minke, and Manning ; Weare ; Zeleke Having problems at school, however, does not mean that all students with learning difficulties see themselves as failures or losers.
Science Education practices in the Framework of secondary school curricula restructuring in East Timor. Apr Science education practices in the Framework of secondary school curricula restructuring in East Timor. Jun Ana Capelo. Students without SEN had a more positive self-concept of per- formance and self-esteem in inclusive classrooms than in regular classrooms Feyerer The positive effects of inclusion on the academic abilities of students with SEN, their self-con- cept and social abilities, are widely recognised Bear, Minke, and Manning ; Lindsay Furthermore, several empirical studies found sound evidence that all students in inclusive classes benefit from inclusion.
Inclusive practices at the teacher and class level: One concern for teachers and schools is how to implement inclusion. This paper examines its implementation at the teacher and class level in Styria, a state in Austria. To do so, a qualitative study with expert interviews was conducted.
Twenty-five experts from seven schools and four Centres for Inclusion and Special Education were interviewed. This paper highlights four areas: The results showed that for the inclusion process to be successful, positive attitudes towards inclusion of children with special educational needs are critical.
Furthermore, negative attitudes towards inclusion can change if resources and support systems are available.
Like every change process, high reliability is necessary to promote inclusion. The special education teacher was seen as an important resource, thus meaningful cooperation between the general and special education teacher was considered as a first step in implementing inclusive education. The use of differentiated teaching methods, along with individual initiatives, were other indispensable practices. According to the experts, these differentiated teaching instructions are implemented better in heterogeneous classrooms, meaning that a classroom composition that corresponds to the normal heterogeneity of the student population is seen as an essential part of teaching.
Do learners with special education needs really feel included? School inclusion is an important right of students in school systems around the world; however, many students with special education needs SEN have lower perceptions of inclusion despite attending inclusive schools. This study examined perceived levels of inclusion, academic self-concept and developmental problems in inclusive schools.
Methods and Procedures: Responses were compared based on gender, grade level, and SEN. Factor structure and measurement invariance were evaluated. Outcomes and Results: Factor structures of both Questionnaires were confirmed. Academic self-concept and emotional inclusion were lower for learners with SEN; however, these effects shrank in grade 7. Similarly, academic self-concept increased between grade 6 and 7. Lastly, learners with SEN had a higher level of conduct problems. Conclusions and implications: Both instruments remain suitable for use in comparisons in inclusive schools.
Significant differences exist for learners with SEN in inclusive classrooms, although these differences may shrink over time. We recommend the continued use of the Perception of Inclusion Questionnaire for information about school inclusion and for learners with SEN. With regard to the academic self-concept, it has been shown that students with SEN have a lower academic self-concept than those without SEN e. This is generally attributed to so-called referencing effects e. Mathematics performance and metacognitive behaviors during task resolution and the self-concept of students with and without learning disabilities in secondary education.
In this article, we examined the relationship between mathematics performance and metacognitive behaviors during task resolution and the selfconcept of students with and without learning disabilities in secondary education. In the group of students without learning disabilities in secondary education, some relationships were found between mathematics performance and metacognitive behaviors during task resolution.
Self-concept, especially scholastic competence and social acceptance showed significant relationships with performance and the metacognitive measures and measures of self-concept also showed significant inter-correlation, resulting in a recognizable pattern in this group. In the groups with SEN, however, the performance was lower and neither concurred with the estimation of how well the problem was solved, nor with calibration and general metacognition. Although a correlation was found between performance and problem representation, other correlations were zero or even negative, indicating that the overall pattern was not very coherent.
The inter-correlations between the metacognitive variables and measures of self-concept were generally not significant. These results question the validity of the metacognitive measures, and suggest that an approach using questionnaires may work for a group of children without difficulties, but appear less appropriate for boys and girls with SEN. The academic development of students without SEN in inclusive classes appears to be at least comparable to classes with no students with SEN for an overview of studies examining impact of inclusion on academic achievement see: Are we included?
Secondary students' perception of inclusion climate in their schools. The study examines secondary school students' perception of the climate in their classrooms with reference to inclusive education. A key objective of the study was also to examine psychometric properties of a newly developed Inclusion Climate Scale ICS. The results of exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors Factor I: Emotional Experience.
The Inclusion Climate Scale along with the two factors it contains showed satisfactory reliability and validity. Sozialverhalten von SchülerInnen mit und ohne sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarf in der Sekundarstufe I. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht das Sozialverhalten und die sozialen Kompetenzen in Beziehung zur sozialen Integration von SchülerInnen in Integrationsklassen.
Schulstufe untersucht. Mittels Regressionsanalyse konnte jedoch gezeigt werden, dass nicht der SPF die erklärende Variable für diese Diskrepanz ist, sondern die soziale Integration durch die direkte Viktimisierung Peereinschätzung , das prosoziales Verhalten der Peers Peereinschätzung und die Viktimisierung LehrerInneneinschätzung vorhergesagt werden kann.
Of particular note here is the focus on students in self-contained classrooms among students with disabilities. Very little work on the role of motivation in reading has been set in such placements; however, some studies have found no differences in these motiva- tional constructs by inclusive versus substantially separate place- ments e.
How motivation and engagement predict reading comprehension among native English-speaking and English-learning middle school students with disabilities in a remedial reading curriculum. Regelschulen zwar etwas höher als in Förderschulen, dieses Muster kehrte sich jedoch in der 9. Wo lernen Kinder mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf besser? Um für bestehende Gruppenunterschiede in Merkmalen zu kontrollieren, die für Schulleistungen relevant sind, wird ein Propensity Score Matching-Verfahren eingesetzt.
Die Effekte sind besonders ausgeprägt für Kinder mit dem Förderschwerpunkt Lernen, weniger prägnant hingegen für Kinder mit dem Förderschwerpunkt Sprache. Construction and psychometric characteristics of the Self-Concept Scale of Interaction in the Classroom. Both construction and psychometric characteristics of a self-concept scale associated with observable behaviors by students and teacher, useful to guide a pedagogic intervention in the classroom are presented. The scale was constructed, including a theoretical review of the construct, pilot application with students and interjudge reliability.
For the study of psychometric characteristics, exploratory factorial analysis EFA , confirmatory factorial analysis CFA , factorial invariance and recurrent validity were performed. A self-report instrument with 22 items shows a three-factor structure, with an explained variance of CFA in two different samples showed fi t indicators for configural invariance. It also has concurrent validity. The scale has good psychometric properties to assess the academic self-concept in the dimensions of Capacity, Work Procedure, and Participation in class.
This can be useful to guide an educational intervention in the context of the teacher-student interaction in the classroom, in primary schools with high socio-economic vulnerability. Evaluating the social impacts of inclusion through a multi-method research design. Although the development of policy towards inclusive education in the UK is well advanced, very little is known about the social outcomes of existing inclusive arrangements in primary settings.
A recent study sought to fill this gap by systematically investigating the social impacts of inclusion on children accredited with Special Educational Needs SEN and their mainstream peers, while also identifying those educational practices contributing to increased social interaction and the development of friendships. Following a brief review of earlier research efforts and theoretical understandings that informed the design of our study, we present the mixed methodology employed which combined sociometric and psychometric techniques with more ecological qualitative methods.
The ways in which these diverse methods complemented each other are discussed alongside wider methodological challenges germane to the research. We conclude by advocating the utilisation of interconnected methods, within a coherent research design of the sort described here. Thomas Hennemann. In dem vorliegenden ersten Beitrag dieses Themenhefts wird die Konzeption einer umfassenden wissenschaftlichen Begleitung im Rahmen der Umsetzung schulischer Inklusion im Kreis Mettmann vorgestellt.
The results of two structural equation models showed that the teacher—student relationship mediated the association between individual school self-concept and school engagement, belonging to school and helplessness in school, respectively. In contrast, the student—student relationship did not mediate any of these associations. Twice-exceptional students have complex cognitive, academic, and psychosocial profiles that present challenges to identification and intervention practices. Comprehensive assessment of all domains is needed to guide appropriate interventions. There are few individual, group, and school-based empirically validated interventions for twice-exceptional populations, yet best-practice guidelines exist within the clinical psychology, special education, and gifted education literatures.
Dec Br J Spec Educ. Strength perceptions showed that those in the PtSEN group consider neither learning nor mathematical skills as their strengths when compared with the No SEN group. According to our comparison, young adults with PtSEN backgrounds perceive deficiencies only in those domains which are directly linked to school. A comparison of self-perception and school relations betweenmiddle school students with specific learning disorder and normal students.
The purpose of the present research was to make a comparison on self-perception and School relationships between students with specific learning disorders and normal students. Samples of this research included 80 second grade guidance school students who were selected using the multi-staged and cluster-random method in city of Ardabil. In order to gather data self-concept scale, school Relations Scale, Revens Intelligence Test, and the author self-composed tests for reading, writing and math evaluation were used.
These findings have important implications in educating and consulting services for students. Ivan Ferreira Clemente. Zusammenhänge zwischen der Beschulungsart und den schulischen Kompetenzen sowie der schulischen Motivation von Kindern mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf. In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird untersucht, wie die Beschulungsart mit den schulischen Kompetenzen und der schulischen Motivation von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf SPF in der vierten Jahrgangsstufe zusammenhängt. Insbesondere Kinder mit dem Förderschwerpunkt Lernen profitierten von einer Beschulung in allgemeinen Schulen.
In der dritten Teilstudie zeigte sich, dass die fähigkeitsbezogene Klassenkomposition unter Berücksichtigung individueller Hintergrundmerkmale und Schulart positiv mit den schulischen Kompetenzen von Kindern mit SPF zusammenhing. In der vierten Teilstudie wurden Zusammenhänge zwischen der Beschulungsart und Merkmalen der schulischen Motivation untersucht. Diese motivationalen Unterschiede konnten auf die geringere Leistungsstärke in Förderschulen im Vergleich zu allgemeinen Schulen zurückgeführt werden.
Gemeinsamer Unterricht von Schülerinnen und Schülern mit und ohne sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarf. Ein empirischer Überblick. An Exploratory Study. Paige Feurer. This study examined school-related stress and depression in adolescents with and without learning disabilities.
A total of 87 students 38 learning-disabled and 49 nondisabled from secondary schools in Calgary completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and on school-related stress. Results indicated that the adolescents with LD reported significantly higher levels of academic self-concept stress than their NonLD peers. However, the groups did not differ significantly on depression or on the other areas of school-related stress.
Significant and positive correlations between school-related stress and depression were found, and the stress variables were found to be significant predictors of adolescent depression. Practical implications of the findings for parents and educators are discussed. Die im Beitrag dargestellten Ergebnisse spiegeln die zentralen Aspekte der inklusiven Entwicklungen im Kreisgebiet wider. Darüber hinaus lassen sich auf der Basis der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse konkrete Handlungsmöglichkeiten ableiten. Researchers investigated the self-concept profiles of twice-exceptional students in relationship to their cognitive ability and participation in educational services.
Self-concept and ability measures were administered as a part of comprehensive evaluations to assess for co-existing high ability and disability. Despite the presence of a disability, overall self-concept profiles were in the average range, suggesting either co-occurring high ability serves as a protective mechanism or a possible positive illusory bias among participants. There was no relationship between ability, educational services, and self-concept, implying that high cognitive ability and related educational interventions are independent of how twice-exceptional students feel about themselves.
Findings raise questions about the precision of traditional identification models in selecting twice-exceptional students for participation in gifted education programming. Inklusion und Bildung. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Arbeitsfelder und die historischen Entstehung der Integrations- und Inklusionsforschung dar und zeigt, dass die Erforschung eines inklusiven Bildungssystems auf mehreren Ebenen erfolgen sollte.
Hierbei wird ein Überblick über die verschiedenen Begrifflichkeiten und Konzepte sowie die Erkenntnisse aus der Forschung des inklusiven Unterrichts gegeben. Social Relationships: The 4th R.